GOA is a coastal state of India with a tropical climate. The culture, agricultural practices, and uses of medicinal plants have been influenced by European Portuguese over centuries.
Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E.
Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sponsor, with an altitude of 1,167 meters (3,829 ft). Goa has a coastline of 160 km (99 mi).
Goa’s seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the most important rivers, interspaced by the Kumbarjua canal, forming a major estuarine complex. These rivers are fed by the Southwest monsoon rain and their basin covers 69% of the state’s geographical area. These rivers are some of the busiest in India. Goa has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and about 90 riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa’s rivers is 253 km (157 mi). Goa has more than 300 ancient water tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over 100 medicinal springs.
The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia.
Most of Goa’s soil cover is made up of laterites rich in ferric-aluminum oxides and reddish. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa’s border with Karnataka. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by rubidium isotope dating. A specimen of the rock is exhibited at Goa University.